We are proud to present this next in a large collection of gorgeous ca. 1860?s to 1910 American Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York glazed Redware Bundt Cake and Aspic molds, diversely molded and in excellent condition. Though many of these stunning molds appear very similar, we have attempted to attribute them to a style of an area whenever possible. All of our examples are in VG-Excellent condition, and unless stated to the contrary, are exceptional antique pottery! This next example features a Bundt Cake bowl with a prolific & handsome internal molded swirl pattern, with an understated exterior lobed form. The base clay is decidedly Pennsylvania, and the clear glaze and rich mottling are simply stunning. The condition of this fine American antique is excellent, and measures, 9.5 x 9.5 x 3.75" tall and weighs 3# 8 oz. Research consulted: Redware: America's Folk Art Pottery Paperback / by Kevin McConnell; American Redware / by William C., Jr. Ketchum; Early New England Potters And Their Wares / by Lura Woodside Watkins. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.Redware pottery, which is just what the name implies, a reddish brown colored pottery, was first made by English settlers in the 1600?s. Redware pottery was made in many different states including, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York and Tennessee. The reason it is that color is because of the iron content of the clay that was used to produce the pottery. The shades of red or brown can vary greatly depending on where the clay came from and how much iron is in the clay. Antique Redware pottery from colonial times can be found to be in most cases rough and usually of poor quality. Higher firing temperatures were not used because the iron-rich clay would melt, and also, as the clay is porous, red ware must receive a secondary over glaze to achieve a proper seal to the pottery, or if you will to achieve a semi vitreous state. Early Colonial Redware was very inexpensive to produce, with rudimentary applied colors, and typically sealed with a simple transparent lead glaze, which was used in conjunction with a slip undercoat sealer. The earliest settlers in New England imported most of what they needed from England, but pre Revolutionary Redware pottery was one of the first necessities they made for themselves. They had a strong British Redware tradition to draw on, as red clay deposits were plentiful lead for the glaze was also readily available, and all that was needed for equipment was a potter?s wheel and a kiln capable of firing at the relatively low temperature of 1,800-1,850 F. The first recorded potter in New England was John Pride, who was working in Salem, Massachusetts by 1640, but he was preceded by anonymous and unrecorded others. The pre 1776 restrictions imposed on the English Settlers by the British crown in the 18th Century, required all quality raw materials to be sent England where the clay would be turned into well designed and fancy pottery. The pottery would then be sent all over the world, including the colonies here in America. It was unlawful for potters to produce their own products lest the crown not make a huge and handsome profit on the shipment, production and re-shipment of product. Although potting was unlawful, Redware was exempt, as it was considered as strictly utilitarian wares in England, and posed no threat to English exports or profits. Some colonists continued to make their own pottery and it was tolerated because the merchandise was of inferior quality to the pottery made in England. After the War of Independence, many potters came to the United States from England and later other countries such as Germany and produced better quality products that were able to compete with the English potters.Germans & English influenced pottery in the Northern states, while English artisans were joined by Africans and Germans creating pottery in the South. The Germans in Pennsylvania made decorated pottery from the mid-18th to the 19th century, using techniques from their homeland in the Rhine district. Using local yellow clay, they made sgraffito and straight slip decorated molded pottery (with lead glazing), whereas semi-liquid clay or slip was used both as a wash before firing and, when thicker with a pressed relief decoration. Sgraffito refers to a technique of cutting away the surface layer to reveal a different base color. Early Southern potters used time honored English firing & design techniques, which produced shapes that were more ovoid, with rounded shoulders. The trend through the 19th century was towards shapes showcasing more generally rounded, then straighter vessel forms. Pre-Civil War earthenware & Redware was of higher quality than later efforts, owing to the demise of the exemplary small regional Plantation potteries that were quite sophisticated & proud of their finished products. The quality decline was further fueled by the faster cheap production brought about the end of the Civil War, with Alkaline and slip glazing the most common finishing techniques in the Old South.