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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN - SELF PORTRAIT WITH CAP OF FEATHERS AND A WHITECOLLAR

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: (After) SELF PORTRAIT WITH CAP OF FEATHERS AND A WHITECOLLAR - STUDY Medium: Unembellished Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 36 x 32 1/8 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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  • 2018-04-14
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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN - PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: After PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST Medium: Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 32 1/4 x 40 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Art State: Gallery/Museum Wrapped and Ready to Hang Ships Rolled in an Art Tube Outside of the United States Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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  • 2017-08-23
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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN - BELSHAZZAR'S FEAST

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: (After) BELSHAZZAR'S FEAST Medium: Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 36 x 28 3/4 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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  • 2018-09-18
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Annonce

REMBRANDT VAN RIJN SASKIA AS FLORA

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: After SASKIA AS FLORA Medium: Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 24 1/2 x 30 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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  • 2017-09-23
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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN - SAINT MATTHEW AND THE ANGEL

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: SAINT MATTHEW AND THE ANGEL Medium: Unembellished Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 30 1/8 x 36 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606–69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946–47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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  • 2018-03-24
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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN - ABRAHAM'S SACRIFICE

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: After ABRAHAM'S SACRIFICE Medium: Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 20 1/2 x 30 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Art State: Gallery/Museum Wrapped and Ready to Hang Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN DESCENT FROM THE CROSS

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: After DESCENT FROM THE CROSS Medium: Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 21 7/8 x 30 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN ARCHANGEL RAPHAEL LEAVING THE FAMILY OF TOBIAS

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: After ARCHANGEL RAPHAEL LEAVING THE FAMILY OF TOBIAS Medium: Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 34 1/8 x 44 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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Annonce

Rembrandt Van Rijn Self Portrait Drawing At Window

DESCRIPTION: ARTIST OR SUBJECT: REMBRANDT van Rijn TITLE: (After) SELF PORTRAIT DRAWING AT WINDOW SIGNATURE: No MEDIUM: etching DIMENSIONS: 6.5" x 5.5" on 15" x 11" ART STATE: Unframed PAPER TYPE: Somerset paper BIOGRAPHY: Rembrandt van Rijn in full Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn Rembrandt originally spelled Rembrant (born July 15 1606 Leiden Netherlands?died October 4 1669 Amsterdam) Dutch Baroque painter and printmaker one of the greatest storytellers in the history of art possessing an exceptional ability to render people in their various moods and dramatic guises. Rembrandt is also known as a painter of light and shade and as an artist who favoured an uncompromising realism that would lead some critics to claim that he preferred ugliness to beauty. Early in his career and for some time Rembrandt painted mainly portraits. Although he continued to paint?and etch and occasionally draw?portraits throughout his career he did so less frequently over time. Roughly one-tenth of his painted and etched oeuvre consists of studies of his own face as well as more-formal self-portraits a fact that has led to much speculation. The core of Rembrandt?s oeuvre however consists of biblical and?to a much lesser extent?historical mythological and allegorical ?history pieces? all of which he painted etched or sketched in pen and ink or chalk. Seen over his whole career the changes in Rembrandt?s style are remarkable. His approach to composition and his rendering of space and light?like his handling of contour form and colour his brushwork and (in his drawings and etchings) his treatment of line and tone?are subject to gradual (or sometimes abrupt) transformation even within a single work. The painting known as Night Watch (1640/42) was clearly a turning point in his stylistic development. These changes are not the result of an involuntary evolution; rather they should be seen as documenting a conscious search in pictorial and narrative respects sometimes in discussion as it were with his great predecessors. Rembrandt quickly achieved renown among Dutch art lovers and an art-buying public for his history paintings and etchings as well as his portraits and self-portraits. His unusual etchings brought him international fame during his lifetime and his drawings which in fact were done as practice exercises or as studies for other works were also collected by contemporary art lovers. According to the myth that evolved after his death Rembrandt died poor and misunderstood. It is true that by the end of his life his realism had been supplanted by Classicism and had become unfashionable in Holland. Nevertheless his international reputation among connoisseurs and collectors only continued to rise. Certain artists in 18th-century Germany and Venice even adopted his style. He was venerated during the Romantic era and was considered a forerunner of the Romantic movement; from that point he was regarded as one of the greatest figures in art history. In the Netherlands itself his fortunes have once again risen and he has become a symbol of both greatness and Dutch-ness. Early Years Rembrandt was the fourth of 6 surviving children out of 10. Unlike many painters of his time he did not come from a family of artists or craftsmen; his father Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn (1568?1630) was a miller. His mother Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuytbrouck (1568?1640) came from a family of bakers. The first name Rembrandt was?and still is?extremely rare. It is akin to more common Dutch first names such as Remmert Gerbrand and IJsbrand. The way Rembrandt inscribed his name on his work evolved significantly. As a young man he signed his work only with the monogram RH (Rembrant Harmenszoon ?son of Harmen?); from 1626/27 with RHL; and in 1632 with RHL van Rijn (the L in the monogram presumably standing for Leidensis ?from Leiden? the town in which he was born). At age 26 he began to sign his work with his first name only Rembrant (ending only with a -t); from early 1633 onward until his death he spelled his name Rembrandt (with -dt) and signed his works that way. It has been suggested that he began using his first name as his signature because he considered himself the equal of the great artists of the 15th and 16th centuries; Michelangelo (Michelangelo Buonarroti) Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) and Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio) were also generally known by their first names. Like most Dutch children of his day Rembrandt attended elementary school (c. 1612?16) after which from roughly 1616 to 1620 he attended the Latin School in Leiden where biblical studies and classics were the main subjects taught. The school?s emphasis on oratory skills may have contributed to his ability to ?stage? the figures in scenes depicted in his history paintings drawings and etchings. It is not clear whether Rembrandt completed his course of study at the Latin School. His first biographer Jan Janszoon Orlers (1570?1646) provided a laudatory half-page biography of Rembrandt within his Beschrijvinge der stadt Leyden (1641; ?Description of the Town of Leiden?). There Orlers wrote that Rembrandt was taken out of school prematurely and at his own request was sent to be trained as a painter. The fact that Rembrandt was enrolled in Leiden University on May 20 1620 does not necessarily contradict this. Whether for tax reasons or simply because they had attended the Latin School it was not unusual for Leiden boys to be registered as students without being expected to attend any lectures. The extent of Rembrandt?s intellectual development and any possible influence this might have had on his work remain matters of speculation. From approximately 1620 to 1624/25 Rembrandt trained as an artist. As was quite common in his time he had two masters in succession. Rembrandt?s first master was the Leiden painter Jacob van Swanenburgh (1571?1638) with whom according to Orlers he remained for about three years. Van Swanenburgh must have taught him the basic skills and imparted the knowledge necessary for the profession. He was a specialist in architectural pieces and in scenes of hell and the underworld which called for skill in painting fire and its reflections on the surrounding objects. In Rembrandt?s time this skill was considered distinct and demanding. It may well be that Rembrandt?s early exposure to this kind of pictorial problem underlies his lasting interest in the effects of light. Rembrandt?s second teacher Pieter Lastman (1583?1633) lived in Amsterdam. According to Orlers Rembrandt stayed with him for six months. Working with Lastman who was well known at that time as a history painter must have helped Rembrandt gain the knowledge and skill necessary to master that genre. History painting involved placing various figures from biblical historical mythological or allegorical scenes in complex settings. In the 17th-century hierarchy of the various genres history painting held the highest position because it required a complete command of all subjects from landscape to architecture from still life to drapery from animals to above all the human figure in a wide range of postures expressions and costumes. One Rembrandt biographer Arnold Houbraken (1660?1719) mentions another Amsterdam history painter Jakob Pynas (c. 1585?1650) as one of Rembrandt?s teachers. (In 1718 Houbraken wrote the most extensive early biography and characterization of Rembrandt as an artist although it was mixed with spurious anecdotes.) On the basis of stylistic arguments one could speculate on the impact that Jan Lievens (1607?74) may have had on Rembrandt during his training. Lievens one year younger than Rembrandt and originally a child prodigy was already a full-fledged artist by the time Rembrandt must have decided to become a painter. Although scholars know for certain only that Rembrandt and Lievens worked closely together for some years after Rembrandt had returned to Leiden about 1625 following his training with Lastman the contacts between these two Leiden boys may have begun earlier. However no trace of Rembrandt?s student exercises has survived. The Leiden Period (1625?31) Over the course of 1625 Rembrandt settled in Leiden as an independent master. During the following six years he laid the foundations for many of his subsequent works and preoccupations. His earliest paintings relied heavily on Lastman?s work. In several instances he took apart as it were the colourful compositions by Lastman and reassembled them into new compositions. (Later although in a less drastic fashion Rembrandt?s own pupils would also produce variations on the basis of Rembrandt?s own works.) For an aspiring painter this was one of the typical methods employed to develop a personal style under a master?s guidance. Given the fact however that Rembrandt painted his variations on Lastman?s prototypes after he had returned to Leiden as an independent young master one can speculate that Rembrandt actually may have been trying to emulate his former teacher by choosing the latter?s subjects but completely ?rephrasing? them. During his Leiden period Rembrandt?s production as a painter was mainly devoted to small-scale history paintings and tronies (single figures in historicizing Oriental or imaginary costumes that connote old age piety soldierly bravery the Orient transience and so on). Tronies were not meant to be portraits although individuals must have posed for them (among them Rembrandt himself in the mirror). Also during this period Rembrandt may have shared a studio with Lievens who like Rembrandt had received his final training with Lastman?although six years earlier. The two young painters experimented with the consistency of paint attempting to use variations in the paint surface to render different materials. It may well be that Lievens had a stronger influence on Rembrandt in these early years than vice versa. The fact that about 1630 they both several times painted the same subject (such as the Raising of Lazarus) might suggest that they were competing with each other. In 1628 or 1629 Rembrandt finished the Judas Repentant and among other works painted The Artist in His Studio. After amazingly rapid changes in style from 1625 onward Rembrandt reached a first major peak in his artistic development in the late 1620s. The paintings he created soon after leaving Lastman still have a waxworks quality with evenly lit colourful figures acting in a clearly organized space. The revolutionary change that took place in Rembrandt?s style between about 1627 and 1629 involved the role of light. By concentrating the light and by exaggerating the diminuendo of the force of light in relation to the distance from the light source Rembrandt arrived at what could crudely be termed ?spotlight? effects. In order to create convincing light effects Rembrandt?like Caravaggio his great Italian precursor in this field?had to compensate by leaving large areas shrouded in shadow. In 1628 in particular in the Peter and Paul Disputing Rembrandt developed a method by which the lit elements in the painting are basically clustered in one area in such a manner that little shadow is needed to separate the various forms. By assembling light hues of yellow blue pink green and other colours he developed a system of bevriende kleuren (?kindred [or related] colours?). This area of the painting was surrounded by coherent clusters of darker tones that occupied the foreground and background and especially the edges and corners of the work. Through this method Rembrandt not only created a concentrated almost furnacelike intensity of the light but he also obtained a strong unity in his composition. This unity enabled the viewer?s eye to grasp the image in one glance before focusing on the details. In order to achieve this result Rembrandt had to sacrifice strong saturated colours since these would impair the desired effect. He also had to sacrifice much detail in order to maintain tonal unity throughout the painting. One could speculate that these pictorial dilemmas eventually led to an artistic crisis that may have become manifest during the work on Night Watch (see below) which was in fact meant to be a scene lit by daylight. Other developments in Rembrandt?s Leiden period such as his activity as an etcher and a teacher would also prove to be important for his whole artistic career. Etching About 1628 Rembrandt made his first etchings. Unlike drawing etching is not a natural counterpart to painting and his decision to begin etching meant taking a significant new direction in his career. Much of his international fame during his lifetime would be based on the widely disseminated prints he produced from the 300 or so etchings he made over the course of his career. Courtesy National Gallery of Art Washington. D.C. Rosenwald Collection 1944.2.62 Analysis of Rembrandt?s early etched oeuvre gives the impression that he was basically self-taught in this field. Whereas Rembrandt?s contemporaries adopted the regular almost stylized manner of applying lines and hatchings that could be found in the much more common copper engravings Rembrandt almost from the outset used a much freer technique which at first strikes the viewer as uncontrolled even nervous. Thanks to this new technique however he succeeded in developing a method of working that appears partly sketchlike yet which could also be described as painterly. The painterly quality of his etchings is mainly due to the way in which he achieved an extraordinarily suggestive play of light and dark and how he created a convincing sense of atmospheric space using different methods of hatching. As early as the 18th century specialists had thoroughly described and explored Rembrandt?s etched oeuvre mainly for the benefit of print collectors. In the process much attention was paid to the different stages?the so-called ?states??through which many of Rembrandt?s etchings evolved as well as to the striking variety of papers upon which the etchings were printed. The latter fact led to the general belief that Rembrandt printed his etchings himself. About 1990 the technique of X-ray radiography was applied to the watermarks on the paper; this technique has made it possible to reconstruct editions of prints and as a result to obtain greater insight into Rembrandt?s studio practice in this field. From 1628 to 1663 Rembrandt had pupils. Gerrit Dou (1613?75) who was later in life noted as a painter of meticulously executed genre paintings and portraits was probably the first. Over the years Rembrandt?s fame attracted many young men?some from abroad?who were ambitious to study with him once they had completed their basic training elsewhere. It seems that Rembrandt never took beginners. Great talents such as Govaert Flinck Carel Fabritius and Aert de Gelder were among these students. Scholars know of the existence of Rembrandt?s individual pupils mainly by chance since the official registers of painters? trainees have been lost in both Leiden and Amsterdam. Only a rough estimate of the number of his pupils is possible. Over his entire career as a teacher (between 1628 and c. 1663) there must certainly have been 50 or so and possibly many more. The German artist Joachim von Sandrart (1606?88) who lived in Amsterdam from 1637 to about 1645 referred to ?countless pupils? who studied and worked with Rembrandt. A pupil?s parents had to pay Rembrandt an annual tuition fee of 100 guilders a substantial sum especially since Rembrandt contrary to custom did not provide boarding for these young men. According to von Sandrart this fee coupled with the sale of his pupils? works added substantially to Rembrandt?s income. It is likely that a number of Rembrandt?s pupils?including Isack Jouderville (1613?before 1648) an orphan from Leiden?stayed on as studio assistants for some time. Rembrandt?s students learned as was common practice in 17th-century studios by copying their master?s works and later by painting and drawing more or less free variations based on them. A passage in Houbraken?s biography of Rembrandt confirmed by an archival document from 1658 states that pupils worked in an attic in separate cubicles partitioned by sailcloth or paper.

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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN MAN WITH GOLD HELMET

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: After MAN WITH GOLD HELMET Medium: Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 12 x 16 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for

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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN - HEAD OF CHRIST

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: After HEAD OF CHRIST Medium: Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 22 1/4 x 30 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Art State: Gallery/Museum Wrapped and Ready to Hang Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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  • 2017-12-03
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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN CHRIST PRESENTED TO THE PEOPLE

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: After CHRIST PRESENTED TO THE PEOPLE Medium: Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 25 1/8 x 30 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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  • 2017-10-22
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Rembrandt Van Rijn Clump Of Trees With A Vista

DESCRIPTION: ARTIST OR SUBJECT: REMBRANDT van Rijn TITLE: (After) CLUMP OF TREES WITH A VISTA SIGNATURE: No MEDIUM: etching DIMENSIONS: 5? x 8-1/4? on 11? x 15? ART STATE: Unframed PAPER TYPE: Somerset paper BIOGRAPHY: Rembrandt van Rijn in full Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn Rembrandt originally spelled Rembrant (born July 15 1606 Leiden Netherlands?died October 4 1669 Amsterdam) Dutch Baroque painter and printmaker one of the greatest storytellers in the history of art possessing an exceptional ability to render people in their various moods and dramatic guises. Rembrandt is also known as a painter of light and shade and as an artist who favoured an uncompromising realism that would lead some critics to claim that he preferred ugliness to beauty. Early in his career and for some time Rembrandt painted mainly portraits. Although he continued to paint?and etch and occasionally draw?portraits throughout his career he did so less frequently over time. Roughly one-tenth of his painted and etched oeuvre consists of studies of his own face as well as more-formal self-portraits a fact that has led to much speculation. The core of Rembrandt?s oeuvre however consists of biblical and?to a much lesser extent?historical mythological and allegorical ?history pieces? all of which he painted etched or sketched in pen and ink or chalk. Seen over his whole career the changes in Rembrandt?s style are remarkable. His approach to composition and his rendering of space and light?like his handling of contour form and colour his brushwork and (in his drawings and etchings) his treatment of line and tone?are subject to gradual (or sometimes abrupt) transformation even within a single work. The painting known as Night Watch (1640/42) was clearly a turning point in his stylistic development. These changes are not the result of an involuntary evolution; rather they should be seen as documenting a conscious search in pictorial and narrative respects sometimes in discussion as it were with his great predecessors. Rembrandt quickly achieved renown among Dutch art lovers and an art-buying public for his history paintings and etchings as well as his portraits and self-portraits. His unusual etchings brought him international fame during his lifetime and his drawings which in fact were done as practice exercises or as studies for other works were also collected by contemporary art lovers. According to the myth that evolved after his death Rembrandt died poor and misunderstood. It is true that by the end of his life his realism had been supplanted by Classicism and had become unfashionable in Holland. Nevertheless his international reputation among connoisseurs and collectors only continued to rise. Certain artists in 18th-century Germany and Venice even adopted his style. He was venerated during the Romantic era and was considered a forerunner of the Romantic movement; from that point he was regarded as one of the greatest figures in art history. In the Netherlands itself his fortunes have once again risen and he has become a symbol of both greatness and Dutch-ness. Early Years Rembrandt was the fourth of 6 surviving children out of 10. Unlike many painters of his time he did not come from a family of artists or craftsmen; his father Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn (1568?1630) was a miller. His mother Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuytbrouck (1568?1640) came from a family of bakers. The first name Rembrandt was?and still is?extremely rare. It is akin to more common Dutch first names such as Remmert Gerbrand and IJsbrand. The way Rembrandt inscribed his name on his work evolved significantly. As a young man he signed his work only with the monogram RH (Rembrant Harmenszoon ?son of Harmen?); from 1626/27 with RHL; and in 1632 with RHL van Rijn (the L in the monogram presumably standing for Leidensis ?from Leiden? the town in which he was born). At age 26 he began to sign his work with his first name only Rembrant (ending only with a -t); from early 1633 onward until his death he spelled his name Rembrandt (with -dt) and signed his works that way. It has been suggested that he began using his first name as his signature because he considered himself the equal of the great artists of the 15th and 16th centuries; Michelangelo (Michelangelo Buonarroti) Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) and Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio) were also generally known by their first names. Like most Dutch children of his day Rembrandt attended elementary school (c. 1612?16) after which from roughly 1616 to 1620 he attended the Latin School in Leiden where biblical studies and classics were the main subjects taught. The school?s emphasis on oratory skills may have contributed to his ability to ?stage? the figures in scenes depicted in his history paintings drawings and etchings. It is not clear whether Rembrandt completed his course of study at the Latin School. His first biographer Jan Janszoon Orlers (1570?1646) provided a laudatory half-page biography of Rembrandt within his Beschrijvinge der stadt Leyden (1641; ?Description of the Town of Leiden?). There Orlers wrote that Rembrandt was taken out of school prematurely and at his own request was sent to be trained as a painter. The fact that Rembrandt was enrolled in Leiden University on May 20 1620 does not necessarily contradict this. Whether for tax reasons or simply because they had attended the Latin School it was not unusual for Leiden boys to be registered as students without being expected to attend any lectures. The extent of Rembrandt?s intellectual development and any possible influence this might have had on his work remain matters of speculation. From approximately 1620 to 1624/25 Rembrandt trained as an artist. As was quite common in his time he had two masters in succession. Rembrandt?s first master was the Leiden painter Jacob van Swanenburgh (1571?1638) with whom according to Orlers he remained for about three years. Van Swanenburgh must have taught him the basic skills and imparted the knowledge necessary for the profession. He was a specialist in architectural pieces and in scenes of hell and the underworld which called for skill in painting fire and its reflections on the surrounding objects. In Rembrandt?s time this skill was considered distinct and demanding. It may well be that Rembrandt?s early exposure to this kind of pictorial problem underlies his lasting interest in the effects of light. Rembrandt?s second teacher Pieter Lastman (1583?1633) lived in Amsterdam. According to Orlers Rembrandt stayed with him for six months. Working with Lastman who was well known at that time as a history painter must have helped Rembrandt gain the knowledge and skill necessary to master that genre. History painting involved placing various figures from biblical historical mythological or allegorical scenes in complex settings. In the 17th-century hierarchy of the various genres history painting held the highest position because it required a complete command of all subjects from landscape to architecture from still life to drapery from animals to above all the human figure in a wide range of postures expressions and costumes. One Rembrandt biographer Arnold Houbraken (1660?1719) mentions another Amsterdam history painter Jakob Pynas (c. 1585?1650) as one of Rembrandt?s teachers. (In 1718 Houbraken wrote the most extensive early biography and characterization of Rembrandt as an artist although it was mixed with spurious anecdotes.) On the basis of stylistic arguments one could speculate on the impact that Jan Lievens (1607?74) may have had on Rembrandt during his training. Lievens one year younger than Rembrandt and originally a child prodigy was already a full-fledged artist by the time Rembrandt must have decided to become a painter. Although scholars know for certain only that Rembrandt and Lievens worked closely together for some years after Rembrandt had returned to Leiden about 1625 following his training with Lastman the contacts between these two Leiden boys may have begun earlier. However no trace of Rembrandt?s student exercises has survived. The Leiden Period (1625?31) Over the course of 1625 Rembrandt settled in Leiden as an independent master. During the following six years he laid the foundations for many of his subsequent works and preoccupations. His earliest paintings relied heavily on Lastman?s work. In several instances he took apart as it were the colourful compositions by Lastman and reassembled them into new compositions. (Later although in a less drastic fashion Rembrandt?s own pupils would also produce variations on the basis of Rembrandt?s own works.) For an aspiring painter this was one of the typical methods employed to develop a personal style under a master?s guidance. Given the fact however that Rembrandt painted his variations on Lastman?s prototypes after he had returned to Leiden as an independent young master one can speculate that Rembrandt actually may have been trying to emulate his former teacher by choosing the latter?s subjects but completely ?rephrasing? them. During his Leiden period Rembrandt?s production as a painter was mainly devoted to small-scale history paintings and tronies (single figures in historicizing Oriental or imaginary costumes that connote old age piety soldierly bravery the Orient transience and so on). Tronies were not meant to be portraits although individuals must have posed for them (among them Rembrandt himself in the mirror). Also during this period Rembrandt may have shared a studio with Lievens who like Rembrandt had received his final training with Lastman?although six years earlier. The two young painters experimented with the consistency of paint attempting to use variations in the paint surface to render different materials. It may well be that Lievens had a stronger influence on Rembrandt in these early years than vice versa. The fact that about 1630 they both several times painted the same subject (such as the Raising of Lazarus) might suggest that they were competing with each other. In 1628 or 1629 Rembrandt finished the Judas Repentant and among other works painted The Artist in His Studio. After amazingly rapid changes in style from 1625 onward Rembrandt reached a first major peak in his artistic development in the late 1620s. The paintings he created soon after leaving Lastman still have a waxworks quality with evenly lit colourful figures acting in a clearly organized space. The revolutionary change that took place in Rembrandt?s style between about 1627 and 1629 involved the role of light. By concentrating the light and by exaggerating the diminuendo of the force of light in relation to the distance from the light source Rembrandt arrived at what could crudely be termed ?spotlight? effects. In order to create convincing light effects Rembrandt?like Caravaggio his great Italian precursor in this field?had to compensate by leaving large areas shrouded in shadow. In 1628 in particular in the Peter and Paul Disputing Rembrandt developed a method by which the lit elements in the painting are basically clustered in one area in such a manner that little shadow is needed to separate the various forms. By assembling light hues of yellow blue pink green and other colours he developed a system of bevriende kleuren (?kindred [or related] colours?). This area of the painting was surrounded by coherent clusters of darker tones that occupied the foreground and background and especially the edges and corners of the work. Through this method Rembrandt not only created a concentrated almost furnacelike intensity of the light but he also obtained a strong unity in his composition. This unity enabled the viewer?s eye to grasp the image in one glance before focusing on the details. In order to achieve this result Rembrandt had to sacrifice strong saturated colours since these would impair the desired effect. He also had to sacrifice much detail in order to maintain tonal unity throughout the painting. One could speculate that these pictorial dilemmas eventually led to an artistic crisis that may have become manifest during the work on Night Watch (see below) which was in fact meant to be a scene lit by daylight. Other developments in Rembrandt?s Leiden period such as his activity as an etcher and a teacher would also prove to be important for his whole artistic career. Etching About 1628 Rembrandt made his first etchings. Unlike drawing etching is not a natural counterpart to painting and his decision to begin etching meant taking a significant new direction in his career. Much of his international fame during his lifetime would be based on the widely disseminated prints he produced from the 300 or so etchings he made over the course of his career. Courtesy National Gallery of Art Washington. D.C. Rosenwald Collection 1944.2.62 Analysis of Rembrandt?s early etched oeuvre gives the impression that he was basically self-taught in this field. Whereas Rembrandt?s contemporaries adopted the regular almost stylized manner of applying lines and hatchings that could be found in the much more common copper engravings Rembrandt almost from the outset used a much freer technique which at first strikes the viewer as uncontrolled even nervous. Thanks to this new technique however he succeeded in developing a method of working that appears partly sketchlike yet which could also be described as painterly. The painterly quality of his etchings is mainly due to the way in which he achieved an extraordinarily suggestive play of light and dark and how he created a convincing sense of atmospheric space using different methods of hatching. As early as the 18th century specialists had thoroughly described and explored Rembrandt?s etched oeuvre mainly for the benefit of print collectors. In the process much attention was paid to the different stages?the so-called ?states??through which many of Rembrandt?s etchings evolved as well as to the striking variety of papers upon which the etchings were printed. The latter fact led to the general belief that Rembrandt printed his etchings himself. About 1990 the technique of X-ray radiography was applied to the watermarks on the paper; this technique has made it possible to reconstruct editions of prints and as a result to obtain greater insight into Rembrandt?s studio practice in this field. From 1628 to 1663 Rembrandt had pupils. Gerrit Dou (1613?75) who was later in life noted as a painter of meticulously executed genre paintings and portraits was probably the first. Over the years Rembrandt?s fame attracted many young men?some from abroad?who were ambitious to study with him once they had completed their basic training elsewhere. It seems that Rembrandt never took beginners. Great talents such as Govaert Flinck Carel Fabritius and Aert de Gelder were among these students. Scholars know of the existence of Rembrandt?s individual pupils mainly by chance since the official registers of painters? trainees have been lost in both Leiden and Amsterdam. Only a rough estimate of the number of his pupils is possible. Over his entire career as a teacher (between 1628 and c. 1663) there must certainly have been 50 or so and possibly many more. The German artist Joachim von Sandrart (1606?88) who lived in Amsterdam from 1637 to about 1645 referred to ?countless pupils? who studied and worked with Rembrandt. A pupil?s parents had to pay Rembrandt an annual tuition fee of 100 guilders a substantial sum especially since Rembrandt contrary to custom did not provide boarding for these young men. According to von Sandrart this fee coupled with the sale of his pupils? works added substantially to Rembrandt?s income. It is likely that a number of Rembrandt?s pupils?including Isack Jouderville (1613?before 1648) an orphan from Leiden?stayed on as studio assistants for some time. Rembrandt?s students learned as was common practice in 17th-century studios by copying their master?s works and later by painting and drawing more or less free variations based on them. A passage in Houbraken?s biography of Rembrandt confirmed by an archival document from 1658 states that pupils worked in an attic in separate cubicles partitioned by sailcloth or paper.

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  • 2018-07-05
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Rembrandt Van Rijn Man At A Desk Wearing A Cross

DESCRIPTION: ARTIST OR SUBJECT: REMBRANDT van Rijn TITLE: (After) MAN AT A DESK WEARING A CROSS SIGNATURE: No MEDIUM: etching DIMENSIONS: 14? x 10? ART STATE: Unframed PAPER TYPE: Somerset paper BIOGRAPHY: Rembrandt van Rijn in full Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn Rembrandt originally spelled Rembrant (born July 15 1606 Leiden Netherlands?died October 4 1669 Amsterdam) Dutch Baroque painter and printmaker one of the greatest storytellers in the history of art possessing an exceptional ability to render people in their various moods and dramatic guises. Rembrandt is also known as a painter of light and shade and as an artist who favoured an uncompromising realism that would lead some critics to claim that he preferred ugliness to beauty. Early in his career and for some time Rembrandt painted mainly portraits. Although he continued to paint?and etch and occasionally draw?portraits throughout his career he did so less frequently over time. Roughly one-tenth of his painted and etched oeuvre consists of studies of his own face as well as more-formal self-portraits a fact that has led to much speculation. The core of Rembrandt?s oeuvre however consists of biblical and?to a much lesser extent?historical mythological and allegorical ?history pieces? all of which he painted etched or sketched in pen and ink or chalk. Seen over his whole career the changes in Rembrandt?s style are remarkable. His approach to composition and his rendering of space and light?like his handling of contour form and colour his brushwork and (in his drawings and etchings) his treatment of line and tone?are subject to gradual (or sometimes abrupt) transformation even within a single work. The painting known as Night Watch (1640/42) was clearly a turning point in his stylistic development. These changes are not the result of an involuntary evolution; rather they should be seen as documenting a conscious search in pictorial and narrative respects sometimes in discussion as it were with his great predecessors. Rembrandt quickly achieved renown among Dutch art lovers and an art-buying public for his history paintings and etchings as well as his portraits and self-portraits. His unusual etchings brought him international fame during his lifetime and his drawings which in fact were done as practice exercises or as studies for other works were also collected by contemporary art lovers. According to the myth that evolved after his death Rembrandt died poor and misunderstood. It is true that by the end of his life his realism had been supplanted by Classicism and had become unfashionable in Holland. Nevertheless his international reputation among connoisseurs and collectors only continued to rise. Certain artists in 18th-century Germany and Venice even adopted his style. He was venerated during the Romantic era and was considered a forerunner of the Romantic movement; from that point he was regarded as one of the greatest figures in art history. In the Netherlands itself his fortunes have once again risen and he has become a symbol of both greatness and Dutch-ness. Early Years Rembrandt was the fourth of 6 surviving children out of 10. Unlike many painters of his time he did not come from a family of artists or craftsmen; his father Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn (1568?1630) was a miller. His mother Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuytbrouck (1568?1640) came from a family of bakers. The first name Rembrandt was?and still is?extremely rare. It is akin to more common Dutch first names such as Remmert Gerbrand and IJsbrand. The way Rembrandt inscribed his name on his work evolved significantly. As a young man he signed his work only with the monogram RH (Rembrant Harmenszoon ?son of Harmen?); from 1626/27 with RHL; and in 1632 with RHL van Rijn (the L in the monogram presumably standing for Leidensis ?from Leiden? the town in which he was born). At age 26 he began to sign his work with his first name only Rembrant (ending only with a -t); from early 1633 onward until his death he spelled his name Rembrandt (with -dt) and signed his works that way. It has been suggested that he began using his first name as his signature because he considered himself the equal of the great artists of the 15th and 16th centuries; Michelangelo (Michelangelo Buonarroti) Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) and Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio) were also generally known by their first names. Like most Dutch children of his day Rembrandt attended elementary school (c. 1612?16) after which from roughly 1616 to 1620 he attended the Latin School in Leiden where biblical studies and classics were the main subjects taught. The school?s emphasis on oratory skills may have contributed to his ability to ?stage? the figures in scenes depicted in his history paintings drawings and etchings. It is not clear whether Rembrandt completed his course of study at the Latin School. His first biographer Jan Janszoon Orlers (1570?1646) provided a laudatory half-page biography of Rembrandt within his Beschrijvinge der stadt Leyden (1641; ?Description of the Town of Leiden?). There Orlers wrote that Rembrandt was taken out of school prematurely and at his own request was sent to be trained as a painter. The fact that Rembrandt was enrolled in Leiden University on May 20 1620 does not necessarily contradict this. Whether for tax reasons or simply because they had attended the Latin School it was not unusual for Leiden boys to be registered as students without being expected to attend any lectures. The extent of Rembrandt?s intellectual development and any possible influence this might have had on his work remain matters of speculation. From approximately 1620 to 1624/25 Rembrandt trained as an artist. As was quite common in his time he had two masters in succession. Rembrandt?s first master was the Leiden painter Jacob van Swanenburgh (1571?1638) with whom according to Orlers he remained for about three years. Van Swanenburgh must have taught him the basic skills and imparted the knowledge necessary for the profession. He was a specialist in architectural pieces and in scenes of hell and the underworld which called for skill in painting fire and its reflections on the surrounding objects. In Rembrandt?s time this skill was considered distinct and demanding. It may well be that Rembrandt?s early exposure to this kind of pictorial problem underlies his lasting interest in the effects of light. Rembrandt?s second teacher Pieter Lastman (1583?1633) lived in Amsterdam. According to Orlers Rembrandt stayed with him for six months. Working with Lastman who was well known at that time as a history painter must have helped Rembrandt gain the knowledge and skill necessary to master that genre. History painting involved placing various figures from biblical historical mythological or allegorical scenes in complex settings. In the 17th-century hierarchy of the various genres history painting held the highest position because it required a complete command of all subjects from landscape to architecture from still life to drapery from animals to above all the human figure in a wide range of postures expressions and costumes. One Rembrandt biographer Arnold Houbraken (1660?1719) mentions another Amsterdam history painter Jakob Pynas (c. 1585?1650) as one of Rembrandt?s teachers. (In 1718 Houbraken wrote the most extensive early biography and characterization of Rembrandt as an artist although it was mixed with spurious anecdotes.) On the basis of stylistic arguments one could speculate on the impact that Jan Lievens (1607?74) may have had on Rembrandt during his training. Lievens one year younger than Rembrandt and originally a child prodigy was already a full-fledged artist by the time Rembrandt must have decided to become a painter. Although scholars know for certain only that Rembrandt and Lievens worked closely together for some years after Rembrandt had returned to Leiden about 1625 following his training with Lastman the contacts between these two Leiden boys may have begun earlier. However no trace of Rembrandt?s student exercises has survived. The Leiden Period (1625?31) Over the course of 1625 Rembrandt settled in Leiden as an independent master. During the following six years he laid the foundations for many of his subsequent works and preoccupations. His earliest paintings relied heavily on Lastman?s work. In several instances he took apart as it were the colourful compositions by Lastman and reassembled them into new compositions. (Later although in a less drastic fashion Rembrandt?s own pupils would also produce variations on the basis of Rembrandt?s own works.) For an aspiring painter this was one of the typical methods employed to develop a personal style under a master?s guidance. Given the fact however that Rembrandt painted his variations on Lastman?s prototypes after he had returned to Leiden as an independent young master one can speculate that Rembrandt actually may have been trying to emulate his former teacher by choosing the latter?s subjects but completely ?rephrasing? them. During his Leiden period Rembrandt?s production as a painter was mainly devoted to small-scale history paintings and tronies (single figures in historicizing Oriental or imaginary costumes that connote old age piety soldierly bravery the Orient transience and so on). Tronies were not meant to be portraits although individuals must have posed for them (among them Rembrandt himself in the mirror). Also during this period Rembrandt may have shared a studio with Lievens who like Rembrandt had received his final training with Lastman?although six years earlier. The two young painters experimented with the consistency of paint attempting to use variations in the paint surface to render different materials. It may well be that Lievens had a stronger influence on Rembrandt in these early years than vice versa. The fact that about 1630 they both several times painted the same subject (such as the Raising of Lazarus) might suggest that they were competing with each other. In 1628 or 1629 Rembrandt finished the Judas Repentant and among other works painted The Artist in His Studio. After amazingly rapid changes in style from 1625 onward Rembrandt reached a first major peak in his artistic development in the late 1620s. The paintings he created soon after leaving Lastman still have a waxworks quality with evenly lit colourful figures acting in a clearly organized space. The revolutionary change that took place in Rembrandt?s style between about 1627 and 1629 involved the role of light. By concentrating the light and by exaggerating the diminuendo of the force of light in relation to the distance from the light source Rembrandt arrived at what could crudely be termed ?spotlight? effects. In order to create convincing light effects Rembrandt?like Caravaggio his great Italian precursor in this field?had to compensate by leaving large areas shrouded in shadow. In 1628 in particular in the Peter and Paul Disputing Rembrandt developed a method by which the lit elements in the painting are basically clustered in one area in such a manner that little shadow is needed to separate the various forms. By assembling light hues of yellow blue pink green and other colours he developed a system of bevriende kleuren (?kindred [or related] colours?). This area of the painting was surrounded by coherent clusters of darker tones that occupied the foreground and background and especially the edges and corners of the work. Through this method Rembrandt not only created a concentrated almost furnacelike intensity of the light but he also obtained a strong unity in his composition. This unity enabled the viewer?s eye to grasp the image in one glance before focusing on the details. In order to achieve this result Rembrandt had to sacrifice strong saturated colours since these would impair the desired effect. He also had to sacrifice much detail in order to maintain tonal unity throughout the painting. One could speculate that these pictorial dilemmas eventually led to an artistic crisis that may have become manifest during the work on Night Watch (see below) which was in fact meant to be a scene lit by daylight. Other developments in Rembrandt?s Leiden period such as his activity as an etcher and a teacher would also prove to be important for his whole artistic career. Etching About 1628 Rembrandt made his first etchings. Unlike drawing etching is not a natural counterpart to painting and his decision to begin etching meant taking a significant new direction in his career. Much of his international fame during his lifetime would be based on the widely disseminated prints he produced from the 300 or so etchings he made over the course of his career. Courtesy National Gallery of Art Washington. D.C. Rosenwald Collection 1944.2.62 Analysis of Rembrandt?s early etched oeuvre gives the impression that he was basically self-taught in this field. Whereas Rembrandt?s contemporaries adopted the regular almost stylized manner of applying lines and hatchings that could be found in the much more common copper engravings Rembrandt almost from the outset used a much freer technique which at first strikes the viewer as uncontrolled even nervous. Thanks to this new technique however he succeeded in developing a method of working that appears partly sketchlike yet which could also be described as painterly. The painterly quality of his etchings is mainly due to the way in which he achieved an extraordinarily suggestive play of light and dark and how he created a convincing sense of atmospheric space using different methods of hatching. As early as the 18th century specialists had thoroughly described and explored Rembrandt?s etched oeuvre mainly for the benefit of print collectors. In the process much attention was paid to the different stages?the so-called ?states??through which many of Rembrandt?s etchings evolved as well as to the striking variety of papers upon which the etchings were printed. The latter fact led to the general belief that Rembrandt printed his etchings himself. About 1990 the technique of X-ray radiography was applied to the watermarks on the paper; this technique has made it possible to reconstruct editions of prints and as a result to obtain greater insight into Rembrandt?s studio practice in this field. From 1628 to 1663 Rembrandt had pupils. Gerrit Dou (1613?75) who was later in life noted as a painter of meticulously executed genre paintings and portraits was probably the first. Over the years Rembrandt?s fame attracted many young men?some from abroad?who were ambitious to study with him once they had completed their basic training elsewhere. It seems that Rembrandt never took beginners. Great talents such as Govaert Flinck Carel Fabritius and Aert de Gelder were among these students. Scholars know of the existence of Rembrandt?s individual pupils mainly by chance since the official registers of painters? trainees have been lost in both Leiden and Amsterdam. Only a rough estimate of the number of his pupils is possible. Over his entire career as a teacher (between 1628 and c. 1663) there must certainly have been 50 or so and possibly many more. The German artist Joachim von Sandrart (1606?88) who lived in Amsterdam from 1637 to about 1645 referred to ?countless pupils? who studied and worked with Rembrandt. A pupil?s parents had to pay Rembrandt an annual tuition fee of 100 guilders a substantial sum especially since Rembrandt contrary to custom did not provide boarding for these young men. According to von Sandrart this fee coupled with the sale of his pupils? works added substantially to Rembrandt?s income. It is likely that a number of Rembrandt?s pupils?including Isack Jouderville (1613?before 1648) an orphan from Leiden?stayed on as studio assistants for some time. Rembrandt?s students learned as was common practice in 17th-century studios by copying their master?s works and later by painting and drawing more or less free variations based on them. A passage in Houbraken?s biography of Rembrandt confirmed by an archival document from 1658 states that pupils worked in an attic in separate cubicles partitioned by sailcloth or paper.

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Rembrandt Van Rijn The Goldweigher

DESCRIPTION: ARTIST OR SUBJECT: REMBRANDT van Rijn TITLE: (After) THE GOLDWEIGHER SIGNATURE: No MEDIUM: etching DIMENSIONS: 17? x 15? ART STATE: Unframed BIOGRAPHY: Rembrandt van Rijn in full Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn Rembrandt originally spelled Rembrant (born July 15 1606 Leiden Netherlands?died October 4 1669 Amsterdam) Dutch Baroque painter and printmaker one of the greatest storytellers in the history of art possessing an exceptional ability to render people in their various moods and dramatic guises. Rembrandt is also known as a painter of light and shade and as an artist who favoured an uncompromising realism that would lead some critics to claim that he preferred ugliness to beauty. Early in his career and for some time Rembrandt painted mainly portraits. Although he continued to paint?and etch and occasionally draw?portraits throughout his career he did so less frequently over time. Roughly one-tenth of his painted and etched oeuvre consists of studies of his own face as well as more-formal self-portraits a fact that has led to much speculation. The core of Rembrandt?s oeuvre however consists of biblical and?to a much lesser extent?historical mythological and allegorical ?history pieces? all of which he painted etched or sketched in pen and ink or chalk. Seen over his whole career the changes in Rembrandt?s style are remarkable. His approach to composition and his rendering of space and light?like his handling of contour form and colour his brushwork and (in his drawings and etchings) his treatment of line and tone?are subject to gradual (or sometimes abrupt) transformation even within a single work. The painting known as Night Watch (1640/42) was clearly a turning point in his stylistic development. These changes are not the result of an involuntary evolution; rather they should be seen as documenting a conscious search in pictorial and narrative respects sometimes in discussion as it were with his great predecessors. Rembrandt quickly achieved renown among Dutch art lovers and an art-buying public for his history paintings and etchings as well as his portraits and self-portraits. His unusual etchings brought him international fame during his lifetime and his drawings which in fact were done as practice exercises or as studies for other works were also collected by contemporary art lovers. According to the myth that evolved after his death Rembrandt died poor and misunderstood. It is true that by the end of his life his realism had been supplanted by Classicism and had become unfashionable in Holland. Nevertheless his international reputation among connoisseurs and collectors only continued to rise. Certain artists in 18th-century Germany and Venice even adopted his style. He was venerated during the Romantic era and was considered a forerunner of the Romantic movement; from that point he was regarded as one of the greatest figures in art history. In the Netherlands itself his fortunes have once again risen and he has become a symbol of both greatness and Dutch-ness. Early Years Rembrandt was the fourth of 6 surviving children out of 10. Unlike many painters of his time he did not come from a family of artists or craftsmen; his father Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn (1568?1630) was a miller. His mother Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuytbrouck (1568?1640) came from a family of bakers. The first name Rembrandt was?and still is?extremely rare. It is akin to more common Dutch first names such as Remmert Gerbrand and IJsbrand. The way Rembrandt inscribed his name on his work evolved significantly. As a young man he signed his work only with the monogram RH (Rembrant Harmenszoon ?son of Harmen?); from 1626/27 with RHL; and in 1632 with RHL van Rijn (the

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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN - BELSHAZZAR'S FEAST

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: After BELSHAZZAR'S FEAST Medium: Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 30 x 24 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Art State: Gallery/Museum Wrapped and Ready to Hang Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN ARISTOTLE WITH A BUST OF HOMER

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: After ARISTOTLE WITH A BUST OF HOMER Medium: Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 28 x 30 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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Rembrandt Van Rijn Man At A Desk Wearing A Cross

DESCRIPTION: ARTIST OR SUBJECT: REMBRANDT van Rijn TITLE: (After) MAN AT A DESK WEARING A CROSS SIGNATURE: No MEDIUM: etching DIMENSIONS: 14? x 10? ART STATE: Unframed PAPER TYPE: Somerset paper BIOGRAPHY: Rembrandt van Rijn in full Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn Rembrandt originally spelled Rembrant (born July 15 1606 Leiden Netherlands?died October 4 1669 Amsterdam) Dutch Baroque painter and printmaker one of the greatest storytellers in the history of art possessing an exceptional ability to render people in their various moods and dramatic guises. Rembrandt is also known as a painter of light and shade and as an artist who favoured an uncompromising realism that would lead some critics to claim that he preferred ugliness to beauty. Early in his career and for some time Rembrandt painted mainly portraits. Although he continued to paint?and etch and occasionally draw?portraits throughout his career he did so less frequently over time. Roughly one-tenth of his painted and etched oeuvre consists of studies of his own face as well as more-formal self-portraits a fact that has led to much speculation. The core of Rembrandt?s oeuvre however consists of biblical and?to a much lesser extent?historical mythological and allegorical ?history pieces? all of which he painted etched or sketched in pen and ink or chalk. Seen over his whole career the changes in Rembrandt?s style are remarkable. His approach to composition and his rendering of space and light?like his handling of contour form and colour his brushwork and (in his drawings and etchings) his treatment of line and tone?are subject to gradual (or sometimes abrupt) transformation even within a single work. The painting known as Night Watch (1640/42) was clearly a turning point in his stylistic development. These changes are not the result of an involuntary evolution; rather they should be seen as documenting a conscious search in pictorial and narrative respects sometimes in discussion as it were with his great predecessors. Rembrandt quickly achieved renown among Dutch art lovers and an art-buying public for his history paintings and etchings as well as his portraits and self-portraits. His unusual etchings brought him international fame during his lifetime and his drawings which in fact were done as practice exercises or as studies for other works were also collected by contemporary art lovers. According to the myth that evolved after his death Rembrandt died poor and misunderstood. It is true that by the end of his life his realism had been supplanted by Classicism and had become unfashionable in Holland. Nevertheless his international reputation among connoisseurs and collectors only continued to rise. Certain artists in 18th-century Germany and Venice even adopted his style. He was venerated during the Romantic era and was considered a forerunner of the Romantic movement; from that point he was regarded as one of the greatest figures in art history. In the Netherlands itself his fortunes have once again risen and he has become a symbol of both greatness and Dutch-ness. Early Years Rembrandt was the fourth of 6 surviving children out of 10. Unlike many painters of his time he did not come from a family of artists or craftsmen; his father Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn (1568?1630) was a miller. His mother Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuytbrouck (1568?1640) came from a family of bakers. The first name Rembrandt was?and still is?extremely rare. It is akin to more common Dutch first names such as Remmert Gerbrand and IJsbrand. The way Rembrandt inscribed his name on his work evolved significantly. As a young man he signed his work only with the monogram RH (Rembrant Harmenszoon ?son of Harmen?); from 1626/27 with RHL; and in 1632 with RHL van Rijn (the L in the monogram presumably standing for Leidensis ?from Leiden? the town in which he was born). At age 26 he began to sign his work with his first name only Rembrant (ending only with a -t); from early 1633 onward until his death he spelled his name Rembrandt (with -dt) and signed his works that way. It has been suggested that he began using his first name as his signature because he considered himself the equal of the great artists of the 15th and 16th centuries; Michelangelo (Michelangelo Buonarroti) Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) and Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio) were also generally known by their first names. Like most Dutch children of his day Rembrandt attended elementary school (c. 1612?16) after which from roughly 1616 to 1620 he attended the Latin School in Leiden where biblical studies and classics were the main subjects taught. The school?s emphasis on oratory skills may have contributed to his ability to ?stage? the figures in scenes depicted in his history paintings drawings and etchings. It is not clear whether Rembrandt completed his course of study at the Latin School. His first biographer Jan Janszoon Orlers (1570?1646) provided a laudatory half-page biography of Rembrandt within his Beschrijvinge der stadt Leyden (1641; ?Description of the Town of Leiden?). There Orlers wrote that Rembrandt was taken out of school prematurely and at his own request was sent to be trained as a painter. The fact that Rembrandt was enrolled in Leiden University on May 20 1620 does not necessarily contradict this. Whether for tax reasons or simply because they had attended the Latin School it was not unusual for Leiden boys to be registered as students without being expected to attend any lectures. The extent of Rembrandt?s intellectual development and any possible influence this might have had on his work remain matters of speculation. From approximately 1620 to 1624/25 Rembrandt trained as an artist. As was quite common in his time he had two masters in succession. Rembrandt?s first master was the Leiden painter Jacob van Swanenburgh (1571?1638) with whom according to Orlers he remained for about three years. Van Swanenburgh must have taught him the basic skills and imparted the knowledge necessary for the profession. He was a specialist in architectural pieces and in scenes of hell and the underworld which called for skill in painting fire and its reflections on the surrounding objects. In Rembrandt?s time this skill was considered distinct and demanding. It may well be that Rembrandt?s early exposure to this kind of pictorial problem underlies his lasting interest in the effects of light. Rembrandt?s second teacher Pieter Lastman (1583?1633) lived in Amsterdam. According to Orlers Rembrandt stayed with him for six months. Working with Lastman who was well known at that time as a history painter must have helped Rembrandt gain the knowledge and skill necessary to master that genre. History painting involved placing various figures from biblical historical mythological or allegorical scenes in complex settings. In the 17th-century hierarchy of the various genres history painting held the highest position because it required a complete command of all subjects from landscape to architecture from still life to drapery from animals to above all the human figure in a wide range of postures expressions and costumes. One Rembrandt biographer Arnold Houbraken (1660?1719) mentions another Amsterdam history painter Jakob Pynas (c. 1585?1650) as one of Rembrandt?s teachers. (In 1718 Houbraken wrote the most extensive early biography and characterization of Rembrandt as an artist although it was mixed with spurious anecdotes.) On the basis of stylistic arguments one could speculate on the impact that Jan Lievens (1607?74) may have had on Rembrandt during his training. Lievens one year younger than Rembrandt and originally a child prodigy was already a full-fledged artist by the time Rembrandt must have decided to become a painter. Although scholars know for certain only that Rembrandt and Lievens worked closely together for some years after Rembrandt had returned to Leiden about 1625 following his training with Lastman the contacts between these two Leiden boys may have begun earlier. However no trace of Rembrandt?s student exercises has survived. The Leiden Period (1625?31) Over the course of 1625 Rembrandt settled in Leiden as an independent master. During the following six years he laid the foundations for many of his subsequent works and preoccupations. His earliest paintings relied heavily on Lastman?s work. In several instances he took apart as it were the colourful compositions by Lastman and reassembled them into new compositions. (Later although in a less drastic fashion Rembrandt?s own pupils would also produce variations on the basis of Rembrandt?s own works.) For an aspiring painter this was one of the typical methods employed to develop a personal style under a master?s guidance. Given the fact however that Rembrandt painted his variations on Lastman?s prototypes after he had returned to Leiden as an independent young master one can speculate that Rembrandt actually may have been trying to emulate his former teacher by choosing the latter?s subjects but completely ?rephrasing? them. During his Leiden period Rembrandt?s production as a painter was mainly devoted to small-scale history paintings and tronies (single figures in historicizing Oriental or imaginary costumes that connote old age piety soldierly bravery the Orient transience and so on). Tronies were not meant to be portraits although individuals must have posed for them (among them Rembrandt himself in the mirror). Also during this period Rembrandt may have shared a studio with Lievens who like Rembrandt had received his final training with Lastman?although six years earlier. The two young painters experimented with the consistency of paint attempting to use variations in the paint surface to render different materials. It may well be that Lievens had a stronger influence on Rembrandt in these early years than vice versa. The fact that about 1630 they both several times painted the same subject (such as the Raising of Lazarus) might suggest that they were competing with each other. In 1628 or 1629 Rembrandt finished the Judas Repentant and among other works painted The Artist in His Studio. After amazingly rapid changes in style from 1625 onward Rembrandt reached a first major peak in his artistic development in the late 1620s. The paintings he created soon after leaving Lastman still have a waxworks quality with evenly lit colourful figures acting in a clearly organized space. The revolutionary change that took place in Rembrandt?s style between about 1627 and 1629 involved the role of light. By concentrating the light and by exaggerating the diminuendo of the force of light in relation to the distance from the light source Rembrandt arrived at what could crudely be termed ?spotlight? effects. In order to create convincing light effects Rembrandt?like Caravaggio his great Italian precursor in this field?had to compensate by leaving large areas shrouded in shadow. In 1628 in particular in the Peter and Paul Disputing Rembrandt developed a method by which the lit elements in the painting are basically clustered in one area in such a manner that little shadow is needed to separate the various forms. By assembling light hues of yellow blue pink green and other colours he developed a system of bevriende kleuren (?kindred [or related] colours?). This area of the painting was surrounded by coherent clusters of darker tones that occupied the foreground and background and especially the edges and corners of the work. Through this method Rembrandt not only created a concentrated almost furnacelike intensity of the light but he also obtained a strong unity in his composition. This unity enabled the viewer?s eye to grasp the image in one glance before focusing on the details. In order to achieve this result Rembrandt had to sacrifice strong saturated colours since these would impair the desired effect. He also had to sacrifice much detail in order to maintain tonal unity throughout the painting. One could speculate that these pictorial dilemmas eventually led to an artistic crisis that may have become manifest during the work on Night Watch (see below) which was in fact meant to be a scene lit by daylight. Other developments in Rembrandt?s Leiden period such as his activity as an etcher and a teacher would also prove to be important for his whole artistic career. Etching About 1628 Rembrandt made his first etchings. Unlike drawing etching is not a natural counterpart to painting and his decision to begin etching meant taking a significant new direction in his career. Much of his international fame during his lifetime would be based on the widely disseminated prints he produced from the 300 or so etchings he made over the course of his career. Courtesy National Gallery of Art Washington. D.C. Rosenwald Collection 1944.2.62 Analysis of Rembrandt?s early etched oeuvre gives the impression that he was basically self-taught in this field. Whereas Rembrandt?s contemporaries adopted the regular almost stylized manner of applying lines and hatchings that could be found in the much more common copper engravings Rembrandt almost from the outset used a much freer technique which at first strikes the viewer as uncontrolled even nervous. Thanks to this new technique however he succeeded in developing a method of working that appears partly sketchlike yet which could also be described as painterly. The painterly quality of his etchings is mainly due to the way in which he achieved an extraordinarily suggestive play of light and dark and how he created a convincing sense of atmospheric space using different methods of hatching. As early as the 18th century specialists had thoroughly described and explored Rembrandt?s etched oeuvre mainly for the benefit of print collectors. In the process much attention was paid to the different stages?the so-called ?states??through which many of Rembrandt?s etchings evolved as well as to the striking variety of papers upon which the etchings were printed. The latter fact led to the general belief that Rembrandt printed his etchings himself. About 1990 the technique of X-ray radiography was applied to the watermarks on the paper; this technique has made it possible to reconstruct editions of prints and as a result to obtain greater insight into Rembrandt?s studio practice in this field. From 1628 to 1663 Rembrandt had pupils. Gerrit Dou (1613?75) who was later in life noted as a painter of meticulously executed genre paintings and portraits was probably the first. Over the years Rembrandt?s fame attracted many young men?some from abroad?who were ambitious to study with him once they had completed their basic training elsewhere. It seems that Rembrandt never took beginners. Great talents such as Govaert Flinck Carel Fabritius and Aert de Gelder were among these students. Scholars know of the existence of Rembrandt?s individual pupils mainly by chance since the official registers of painters? trainees have been lost in both Leiden and Amsterdam. Only a rough estimate of the number of his pupils is possible. Over his entire career as a teacher (between 1628 and c. 1663) there must certainly have been 50 or so and possibly many more. The German artist Joachim von Sandrart (1606?88) who lived in Amsterdam from 1637 to about 1645 referred to ?countless pupils? who studied and worked with Rembrandt. A pupil?s parents had to pay Rembrandt an annual tuition fee of 100 guilders a substantial sum especially since Rembrandt contrary to custom did not provide boarding for these young men. According to von Sandrart this fee coupled with the sale of his pupils? works added substantially to Rembrandt?s income. It is likely that a number of Rembrandt?s pupils?including Isack Jouderville (1613?before 1648) an orphan from Leiden?stayed on as studio assistants for some time. Rembrandt?s students learned as was common practice in 17th-century studios by copying their master?s works and later by painting and drawing more or less free variations based on them. A passage in Houbraken?s biography of Rembrandt confirmed by an archival document from 1658 states that pupils worked in an attic in separate cubicles partitioned by sailcloth or paper.

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Rembrandt Van Rijn The Windmill

DESCRIPTION: ARTIST OR SUBJECT: REMBRANDT van Rijn TITLE: (After) THE WINDMILL SIGNATURE: No MEDIUM: etching DIMENSIONS: 14? x 13? ART STATE: Unframed PAPER TYPE: Somerset paper BIOGRAPHY: Rembrandt van Rijn in full Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn Rembrandt originally spelled Rembrant (born July 15 1606 Leiden Netherlands?died October 4 1669 Amsterdam) Dutch Baroque painter and printmaker one of the greatest storytellers in the history of art possessing an exceptional ability to render people in their various moods and dramatic guises. Rembrandt is also known as a painter of light and shade and as an artist who favoured an uncompromising realism that would lead some critics to claim that he preferred ugliness to beauty. Early in his career and for some time Rembrandt painted mainly portraits. Although he continued to paint?and etch and occasionally draw?portraits throughout his career he did so less frequently over time. Roughly one-tenth of his painted and etched oeuvre consists of studies of his own face as well as more-formal self-portraits a fact that has led to much speculation. The core of Rembrandt?s oeuvre however consists of biblical and?to a much lesser extent?historical mythological and allegorical ?history pieces? all of which he painted etched or sketched in pen and ink or chalk. Seen over his whole career the changes in Rembrandt?s style are remarkable. His approach to composition and his rendering of space and light?like his handling of contour form and colour his brushwork and (in his drawings and etchings) his treatment of line and tone?are subject to gradual (or sometimes abrupt) transformation even within a single work. The painting known as Night Watch (1640/42) was clearly a turning point in his stylistic development. These changes are not the result of an involuntary evolution; rather they should be seen as documenting a conscious search in pictorial and narrative respects sometimes in discussion as it were with his great predecessors. Rembrandt quickly achieved renown among Dutch art lovers and an art-buying public for his history paintings and etchings as well as his portraits and self-portraits. His unusual etchings brought him international fame during his lifetime and his drawings which in fact were done as practice exercises or as studies for other works were also collected by contemporary art lovers. According to the myth that evolved after his death Rembrandt died poor and misunderstood. It is true that by the end of his life his realism had been supplanted by Classicism and had become unfashionable in Holland. Nevertheless his international reputation among connoisseurs and collectors only continued to rise. Certain artists in 18th-century Germany and Venice even adopted his style. He was venerated during the Romantic era and was considered a forerunner of the Romantic movement; from that point he was regarded as one of the greatest figures in art history. In the Netherlands itself his fortunes have once again risen and he has become a symbol of both greatness and Dutch-ness. Early Years Rembrandt was the fourth of 6 surviving children out of 10. Unlike many painters of his time he did not come from a family of artists or craftsmen; his father Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn (1568?1630) was a miller. His mother Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuytbrouck (1568?1640) came from a family of bakers. The first name Rembrandt was?and still is?extremely rare. It is akin to more common Dutch first names such as Remmert Gerbrand and IJsbrand. The way Rembrandt inscribed his name on his work evolved significantly. As a young man he signed his work only with the monogram RH (Rembrant Harmenszoon ?son of Harmen?); from 1626/27 with RHL; and in 1632 with RHL van Rijn (the L in the monogram presumably standing for Leidensis ?from Leiden? the town in which he was born). At age 26 he began to sign his work with his first name only Rembrant (ending only with a -t); from early 1633 onward until his death he spelled his name Rembrandt (with -dt) and signed his works that way. It has been suggested that he began using his first name as his signature because he considered himself the equal of the great artists of the 15th and 16th centuries; Michelangelo (Michelangelo Buonarroti) Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) and Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio) were also generally known by their first names. Like most Dutch children of his day Rembrandt attended elementary school (c. 1612?16) after which from roughly 1616 to 1620 he attended the Latin School in Leiden where biblical studies and classics were the main subjects taught. The school?s emphasis on oratory skills may have contributed to his ability to ?stage? the figures in scenes depicted in his history paintings drawings and etchings. It is not clear whether Rembrandt completed his course of study at the Latin School. His first biographer Jan Janszoon Orlers (1570?1646) provided a laudatory half-page biography of Rembrandt within his Beschrijvinge der stadt Leyden (1641; ?Description of the Town of Leiden?). There Orlers wrote that Rembrandt was taken out of school prematurely and at his own request was sent to be trained as a painter. The fact that Rembrandt was enrolled in Leiden University on May 20 1620 does not necessarily contradict this. Whether for tax reasons or simply because they had attended the Latin School it was not unusual for Leiden boys to be registered as students without being expected to attend any lectures. The extent of Rembrandt?s intellectual development and any possible influence this might have had on his work remain matters of speculation. From approximately 1620 to 1624/25 Rembrandt trained as an artist. As was quite common in his time he had two masters in succession. Rembrandt?s first master was the Leiden painter Jacob van Swanenburgh (1571?1638) with whom according to Orlers he remained for about three years. Van Swanenburgh must have taught him the basic skills and imparted the knowledge necessary for the profession. He was a specialist in architectural pieces and in scenes of hell and the underworld which called for skill in painting fire and its reflections on the surrounding objects. In Rembrandt?s time this skill was considered distinct and demanding. It may well be that Rembrandt?s early exposure to this kind of pictorial problem underlies his lasting interest in the effects of light. Rembrandt?s second teacher Pieter Lastman (1583?1633) lived in Amsterdam. According to Orlers Rembrandt stayed with him for six months. Working with Lastman who was well known at that time as a history painter must have helped Rembrandt gain the knowledge and skill necessary to master that genre. History painting involved placing various figures from biblical historical mythological or allegorical scenes in complex settings. In the 17th-century hierarchy of the various genres history painting held the highest position because it required a complete command of all subjects from landscape to architecture from still life to drapery from animals to above all the human figure in a wide range of postures expressions and costumes. One Rembrandt biographer Arnold Houbraken (1660?1719) mentions another Amsterdam history painter Jakob Pynas (c. 1585?1650) as one of Rembrandt?s teachers. (In 1718 Houbraken wrote the most extensive early biography and characterization of Rembrandt as an artist although it was mixed with spurious anecdotes.) On the basis of stylistic arguments one could speculate on the impact that Jan Lievens (1607?74) may have had on Rembrandt during his training. Lievens one year younger than Rembrandt and originally a child prodigy was already a full-fledged artist by the time Rembrandt must have decided to become a painter. Although scholars know for certain only that Rembrandt and Lievens worked closely together for some years after Rembrandt had returned to Leiden about 1625 following his training with Lastman the contacts between these two Leiden boys may have begun earlier. However no trace of Rembrandt?s student exercises has survived. The Leiden Period (1625?31) Over the course of 1625 Rembrandt settled in Leiden as an independent master. During the following six years he laid the foundations for many of his subsequent works and preoccupations. His earliest paintings relied heavily on Lastman?s work. In several instances he took apart as it were the colourful compositions by Lastman and reassembled them into new compositions. (Later although in a less drastic fashion Rembrandt?s own pupils would also produce variations on the basis of Rembrandt?s own works.) For an aspiring painter this was one of the typical methods employed to develop a personal style under a master?s guidance. Given the fact however that Rembrandt painted his variations on Lastman?s prototypes after he had returned to Leiden as an independent young master one can speculate that Rembrandt actually may have been trying to emulate his former teacher by choosing the latter?s subjects but completely ?rephrasing? them. During his Leiden period Rembrandt?s production as a painter was mainly devoted to small-scale history paintings and tronies (single figures in historicizing Oriental or imaginary costumes that connote old age piety soldierly bravery the Orient transience and so on). Tronies were not meant to be portraits although individuals must have posed for them (among them Rembrandt himself in the mirror). Also during this period Rembrandt may have shared a studio with Lievens who like Rembrandt had received his final training with Lastman?although six years earlier. The two young painters experimented with the consistency of paint attempting to use variations in the paint surface to render different materials. It may well be that Lievens had a stronger influence on Rembrandt in these early years than vice versa. The fact that about 1630 they both several times painted the same subject (such as the Raising of Lazarus) might suggest that they were competing with each other. In 1628 or 1629 Rembrandt finished the Judas Repentant and among other works painted The Artist in His Studio. After amazingly rapid changes in style from 1625 onward Rembrandt reached a first major peak in his artistic development in the late 1620s. The paintings he created soon after leaving Lastman still have a waxworks quality with evenly lit colourful figures acting in a clearly organized space. The revolutionary change that took place in Rembrandt?s style between about 1627 and 1629 involved the role of light. By concentrating the light and by exaggerating the diminuendo of the force of light in relation to the distance from the light source Rembrandt arrived at what could crudely be termed ?spotlight? effects. In order to create convincing light effects Rembrandt?like Caravaggio his great Italian precursor in this field?had to compensate by leaving large areas shrouded in shadow. In 1628 in particular in the Peter and Paul Disputing Rembrandt developed a method by which the lit elements in the painting are basically clustered in one area in such a manner that little shadow is needed to separate the various forms. By assembling light hues of yellow blue pink green and other colours he developed a system of bevriende kleuren (?kindred [or related] colours?). This area of the painting was surrounded by coherent clusters of darker tones that occupied the foreground and background and especially the edges and corners of the work. Through this method Rembrandt not only created a concentrated almost furnacelike intensity of the light but he also obtained a strong unity in his composition. This unity enabled the viewer?s eye to grasp the image in one glance before focusing on the details. In order to achieve this result Rembrandt had to sacrifice strong saturated colours since these would impair the desired effect. He also had to sacrifice much detail in order to maintain tonal unity throughout the painting. One could speculate that these pictorial dilemmas eventually led to an artistic crisis that may have become manifest during the work on Night Watch (see below) which was in fact meant to be a scene lit by daylight. Other developments in Rembrandt?s Leiden period such as his activity as an etcher and a teacher would also prove to be important for his whole artistic career. Etching About 1628 Rembrandt made his first etchings. Unlike drawing etching is not a natural counterpart to painting and his decision to begin etching meant taking a significant new direction in his career. Much of his international fame during his lifetime would be based on the widely disseminated prints he produced from the 300 or so etchings he made over the course of his career. Courtesy National Gallery of Art Washington. D.C. Rosenwald Collection 1944.2.62 Analysis of Rembrandt?s early etched oeuvre gives the impression that he was basically self-taught in this field. Whereas Rembrandt?s contemporaries adopted the regular almost stylized manner of applying lines and hatchings that could be found in the much more common copper engravings Rembrandt almost from the outset used a much freer technique which at first strikes the viewer as uncontrolled even nervous. Thanks to this new technique however he succeeded in developing a method of working that appears partly sketchlike yet which could also be described as painterly. The painterly quality of his etchings is mainly due to the way in which he achieved an extraordinarily suggestive play of light and dark and how he created a convincing sense of atmospheric space using different methods of hatching. As early as the 18th century specialists had thoroughly described and explored Rembrandt?s etched oeuvre mainly for the benefit of print collectors. In the process much attention was paid to the different stages?the so-called ?states??through which many of Rembrandt?s etchings evolved as well as to the striking variety of papers upon which the etchings were printed. The latter fact led to the general belief that Rembrandt printed his etchings himself. About 1990 the technique of X-ray radiography was applied to the watermarks on the paper; this technique has made it possible to reconstruct editions of prints and as a result to obtain greater insight into Rembrandt?s studio practice in this field. From 1628 to 1663 Rembrandt had pupils. Gerrit Dou (1613?75) who was later in life noted as a painter of meticulously executed genre paintings and portraits was probably the first. Over the years Rembrandt?s fame attracted many young men?some from abroad?who were ambitious to study with him once they had completed their basic training elsewhere. It seems that Rembrandt never took beginners. Great talents such as Govaert Flinck Carel Fabritius and Aert de Gelder were among these students. Scholars know of the existence of Rembrandt?s individual pupils mainly by chance since the official registers of painters? trainees have been lost in both Leiden and Amsterdam. Only a rough estimate of the number of his pupils is possible. Over his entire career as a teacher (between 1628 and c. 1663) there must certainly have been 50 or so and possibly many more. The German artist Joachim von Sandrart (1606?88) who lived in Amsterdam from 1637 to about 1645 referred to ?countless pupils? who studied and worked with Rembrandt. A pupil?s parents had to pay Rembrandt an annual tuition fee of 100 guilders a substantial sum especially since Rembrandt contrary to custom did not provide boarding for these young men. According to von Sandrart this fee coupled with the sale of his pupils? works added substantially to Rembrandt?s income. It is likely that a number of Rembrandt?s pupils?including Isack Jouderville (1613?before 1648) an orphan from Leiden?stayed on as studio assistants for some time. Rembrandt?s students learned as was common practice in 17th-century studios by copying their master?s works and later by painting and drawing more or less free variations based on them. A passage in Houbraken?s biography of Rembrandt confirmed by an archival document from 1658 states that pupils worked in an attic in separate cubicles partitioned by sailcloth or paper.

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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN PORTRAIT OF B. MARTENS DOOMER

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: After PORTRAIT OF B. MARTENS DOOMER Medium: Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 16 1/8 x 22 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN - RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL SON

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: After RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL SON Medium: Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 23 x 30 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Art State: Gallery/Museum Wrapped and Ready to Hang Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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  • 2017-11-14
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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN - THE WOMAN WITH THE ARROW

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: (After) THE WOMAN WITH THE ARROW Medium: Unembellished Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 18 1/8 x 30 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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  • 2018-04-22
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REMBRANDT VAN RIJN - BATHSHEBA AT HER BATH

Artist: REMBRANDT VAN RIJN Title: (After) BATHSHEBA AT HER BATH Medium: Unembellished Giclee Print on Canvas Size: 27 1/2 x 30 in. Paper Type: High Quality Artist Grade 350 Gsm, Acid-free, Archival Canvas Biography: Rembrandt Van Rijn Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn, 1606?69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school. Early Life A miller's son, Rembrandt attended a Latin school and spent part of one year at the Univ. of Leiden, leaving in 1621 to study painting with a local artist, Jacob van Swanenburgh. His most valuable training was received during the six months of 1624 that he spent in the studio of Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam. Lastman's work affected Rembrandt's in his sense of composition and his frequent choice of religious and historical themes. Receptive to many influences at this time, Rembrandt sometimes reflected the dramatic chiaroscuro of Caravaggio in paintings such as The Money Changer (Berlin) or the more delicate and detailed manner of Elsheimer as in The Tribute Money (London). The Leiden Years In 1625 Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he developed his own distinct style, using the many possibilities of the oil medium, heavily layering the paint, and experimenting with diverse techniques. He showed an unusual preference for the faces of the old and the poor from his earliest works to his latest (e.g., Two Philosophers, Melbourne). In the Leiden years he began the magnificent series of nearly 100 self-portraits that describe the continuing development of his profound self-understanding and self-awareness, as well as his stylistic growth. While in Leiden he collaborated with Jan Lievens and began to teach. He devoted much of his life to teaching, and one of his foremost pupils in Leiden was Gerard Dou. Amsterdam: Success, Bankruptcy, and a Developing Style Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1632, where he became established as a portrait painter with his group portrait Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632; The Hague), a traditional subject to which he gave radical treatment. His commissioned portraits include those of Minister Johannes Elison and his wife (Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston) and Nicolas Ruts (Frick Coll., New York City). His position in Amsterdam was further solidified by the dowry and social connections gained by his joyous marriage to Saskia van Ulyenburgh, a burgomaster's daughter. Affluent and successful, he began to collect numerous works of art, costumes, and curiosities, always learning from the art and often using the costumes in his portraits. During this period his style acquired a new richness of color and greater plasticity of form. He incorporated the vigor, opulence, and drama of the baroque movement, best seen in The Sacrifice of Abraham (St. Petersburg) and The Blinding of Samson (1636, Frankfurt). His studio was filled with pupils, including Jacob Backer, Govaert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and later the gifted Carel Fabritius and Nicholas Maes. Serious financial difficulties began for Rembrandt with his purchase of an impressive house in 1639. Saskia died in 1642 after the birth of their only surviving child, Titus, who was later to become Rembrandt's favorite portrait subject. During the same year he completed his most famous group portrait, The Shooting Company of Capt. Frans Banning Cocq (Rijks Mus.) This work is traditionally called The Night Watch, although a cleaning in 1946?47 revealed a daylight setting. In this work and others instead of painting a conventional group portrait, Rembrandt made of it a crowd spectacle, sacrificing individual identities to dramatic, high-contrast lighting. During the 1640s Rembrandt developed an enduring interest in landscape. He made numerous etchings, including Three Trees and Christ Healing the Sick, executed with exceptional spontaneity and vigor, and created many works solely for his own pleasure, an unusual practice for his time. This, together with his art collecting, eventually caused financial ruin. Later Years, Late Masterworks In 1660 his housekeeper and devoted love for many years, Hendrickje Stoffels, and Titus formed a business partnership to shield the bankrupt Rembrandt from his creditors. In the last two decades of his life Rembrandt, withdrawn from society and no longer fashionable, created many of his masterpieces. These works were more concerned with human character than with outward appearance and are the foundation of his unequaled reputation. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Mus.) reveals his power to elicit a mood of profound mystery and meditation. Among the other remarkable paintings of this period is Bathsheba (Louvre); two of the notable etchings are Three Crosses (1653) and Christ Presented to the People(1655). The powerful night scene The Conspiracy of the Batavians (1661; Stockholm) is the remaining fragment of his most monumental historical work. To the 1660s belong The Family Group (Brunswick), The Jewish Bride (Rijks Mus.), and The Syndics of the Cloth Guild (1662; Rijks Mus.), all of which are loosely structured, flamelike in color, and psychologically penetrating. Personal tragedy struck the master with the death of Hendrickje in 1663 and of Titus in 1668. Rembrandt lived for one more year, survived by Cornelia, his and Hendrickje's only child. Achievement The universal appeal of Rembrandt's art rests upon its profound humanity. His surpassing handling of light was recognized even when his critics considered that his subject matter was vulgar and indecorous. The prodigious output of his lifetime is known to embrace more than 600 paintings, about 300 etchings, and nearly 2,000 drawings. To each medium he gave his best effort. Used with permission. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press

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  • 2018-04-28
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